Fears of track buckling limit rail speeds.

Record temperatures might endanger the safety of steel railway rails in most of England & Wales.

Some trains will move as slow as 20mph, down from 100-125mph. 

The Met Office has issued red & amber heat warnings for England, Scotland, & Wales. 

Network Rail claimed that when steel gets hot, tracks can bend, flex, & buckle. 

Only essential travel was advised, & delays & cancellations were likely. 

Travelers should wear cool clothes, use handheld fans, & bring plenty of drink. Passengers should verify train timetables before departing. 

Steel railways absorb heat fast & can be 20C (68F) hotter than the surrounding air. 

Slower trains generate less force, therefore the rail is less likely to buckle in the heat. 

In warmer weather, overhead power lines can expand & droop, so driving slower decreases damage risk. 

Jake Kelly, Network Rail's disruption manager, said the heat would put the rails under "extraordinary stress."

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